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Applications of ultrasonic spectroscopy in pharmaceutical industry include:

Ligand Binding

e.g. antibody binding

Emulsion Stability

e.g. analysis of micro-emulsions

Crystallisation

e.g. crystallisation of lysozyme

Conformational Transitions

e.g. thermal transitions

Concentration Analysis

e.g. concentration water in oil

Aggregation

e.g. destabilisation of dispersions, aggregation in proteins induced by thermal denaturation

Kinetics of Chemical Reactions and Enzymatic Activity

Micelle Analysis

e.g. critical micelle concentration

Gelation

e.g. aggregation and gel formation in acidified whey protein solutions

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